NICE CKD guideline
Brief NICE guideline summary on the investigation, classification, monitoring, and management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in primary and secondary care.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an abnormality of structure and/or function of the kidneys, which can be progressive. It often occurs concurrently with cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease and contributes to mortality and morbidity risk of other conditions. In 2009-2010 1.3% of all NHS spending was attributed to CKD, and it was estimated that 7000 more strokes and 12,000 more myocardial infarctions occurred in people with CKD compared to those without. There are five CKD stages, with the severity of symptoms progressing with each stage until end stage renal failure. Treatment of CKD can prevent or delay progression, reduce or prevent complications, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
This Guidelines for Nurses summary contains recommendations on testing and monitoring renal function for diagnosis and management of CKD, identifying risk factors for progression, determining which patients to refer to specialist services, and choosing pharmacological management. It includes tables for classifying CKD stages and determining frequency of monitoring renal function.